Migratory Birds of the Great Lakes University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute
 about habitat birds + science 20 birds
copyright UW Sea Grant, writer: L. Wiland, design: T. Yao contact us credits
Wetland    Forest    Shrub    Meadow   Swamp    Marsh    Shoreline   

Shrub: Also called a savanna, this habitat is dominated by shrubs, saplings or scattered trees where total woody cover-that is, plants over three feet tall-is 25 percent but total tree cover is less than 50 percent. Shrubland habitat covers 20 percent of the 48 contiguous states, and most of it is seriously degraded in quality. Primary threats include conversion to pasture for grazing, invasion of nonnative species, resource extraction, too-frequent or too-scarce fire, overgrazing by deer or livestock, and urbanization.

Meadow: A meadow is a fairly level tract of grassland usually found in an upland area. Depending on the soils and surrounding topography, meadows can be quite marshy and may feature standing water for part of the year.

Swamp: Swamps can best be described as flooded woodlands or shrublands. Unlike marshes, they are dominated by woody plants. The soil is usually waterlogged throughout the growing season, though some swamp soils may become dry during the hot summer months. Swamps occur most often along streams or on floodplains, in flat uplands, or shallow lake basins.         next page >>